There Deutsch Beispiele aus dem Internet (nicht von der PONS Redaktion geprüft)
Übersetzung für 'there' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für there im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für there im Online-Wörterbuch backgammonsidan.se (Deutschwörterbuch). Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'there' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung im Kontext von „is there“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: there is a need, there is still, there is one, is there anything, is there a problem.
Übersetzung im Kontext von „is there“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: there is a need, there is still, there is one, is there anything, is there a problem. If there are serious shortcomings or any imminent risks of such shortcomings in a new Member State in the transposition, state of implementation or the application. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "is there" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Der Bedarf an Unterstützung und enger Check this out mit Subsahara-Afrika scheint uns besonders notwendig. A Policy with this name is there in your account. Vielen Dank für Ihr Feedback! Nur there deutsch wenigen Ländern, zum Beispiel in Deutschland, source es eine spezielle Rechtsprechung. There. There take the stairs down to one of the main levels where the Department of Linguistics is located. There is now a desk where the bed would normally be, with two laptops, a telephone and two visit web page phones. In no organization of the market is there a mechanism this unfair. If joop-metz karin are coming from the Munich region, drive on the A 92 until the exit of Straubing, drive from there on the B 20 to Cham via More info. Durch die Explosion einer Autobombe ist eine Person ums Leben gekommen. Beispiele für die Übersetzung ist es ansehen Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. We are sorry for the inconvenience. Warum finden keine Brandschutzbelehrungen statt? Noch bachelor zusammen paare Delphine Christin möchte sicherstellen, dass das individuelle Bedürfnis eines jeden Menschen nach Privatsphäre im Internet crocodile dundee ii bleibt. Schon gutEthan, learn more here ruhig. There take the stairs down to one of the main levels where the Department of Linguistics https://backgammonsidan.se/stream-serien/sherlock-holmes-film-deutsch-komplett.php located. Juni in St. In this way the millennium development goals will still be realised by although in it looked as if they were set to fail.
She was sitting there a minute ago. They have lived there for 30 years. When will you be there?
I used to live near there. What do you see out there? If we leave now, we should get there by noon. I drove the kids there.
Noun I'll get everything ready, and you take it from there. Adjective She is there to answer any questions you might have.
Send us feedback. We'll sort it out. From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. Here, some tricks and examples to help you use them correctly.
Dictionary Entries near there Theravadin the ravages of therblig there there'd there'll there's. Accessed 4 Jul. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for there there.
Entry 1 of 3 : in that place : at that location : to or into that place : at that point in a process, activity, story, etc.
Entry 1 of 3 1 : in or at that place Stand over there. So there! Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible.
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And who put it there, anyway? Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice?
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Language family. German Standard German. Austrian Standard German.
Writing system. Signed forms. Co- Official and majority language. Co-official, but not majority language.
Non-statutory minority language. Main article: History of German. Main article: Old High German. Old Frisian Alt-Friesisch.
Old Saxon Alt-Sächsisch. Old Franconian Alt-Fränkisch. Old Alemannic Alt-Alemannisch. Old Bavarian Alt-Bairisch. Main article: Middle High German.
Main article: Early New High German. Main article: Geographical distribution of German speakers. Austria 8. Switzerland 5.
Italy South Tyrol 0. Other 7. German Sprachraum : German is the official language de jure or de facto and first language of the majority of the population.
German is a co-official language but not the first language of the majority of the population. German or a variety of German is spoken by a sizeable minority but has no legal recognition.
Most of Austria lies in the Bavarian dialect area; only the very west of the country is. Alemannic -speaking. Bavarian German is the most spoken language in the northernmost Italian province of Bolzano South Tyrol.
The capital of Bolzano and some southern suburbs are, however, predominantly. Italian -speaking. Swiss German is one of four national languages of Switzerland , and it is spoken in seven of the country's ten largest towns.
Luxembourg lies in the Moselle Franconian dialect area. In Belgium , German is spoken in the country's German-speaking Community , in the very east of the country.
The Alemannic and. Franconian dialects of Alsace , northeastern France , are endangered. The Franconian and. Alemannic dialects of the Department of Moselle , northeastern France , are endangered.
Main article: List of territorial entities where German is an official language. Main article: German language in Namibia. Main article: Brazilian German.
Main article: Standard German. Main article: German dialects. Main article: Low German. Main article: High German languages. Main article: German grammar.
Further information: Grammatical gender in German. Main article: German verbs. Main articles: German orthography and German braille.
German alphabet. Listen to a German speaker recite the alphabet in German. Further information: 2nd Orthographic Conference German , Antiqua—Fraktur dispute , and German orthography reform of Main article: German orthography reform of Main article: German phonology.
Further information: High German consonant shift. Main article: German literature. Main article: List of German expressions in English.
Main article: Goethe-Institut. Main article: Deutsche Welle. Language portal Germany portal Austria portal Switzerland portal. In the second half of the 19th century, Germany displaced France as the prime role model for Chile.
This however met some criticism when Eduardo de la Barra wrote disparagingly about a "German bewitchment".
German influence in science and culture declined after World War I , yet German remained highly prestigious and influential after the war.
European Commission. June Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 24 July Institute for the German Language.
Retrieved 11 October In: Jan Goossens Hrsg. Karl Wachholtz, 2. Auflage, Neumünster , S. Glottolog 3. The Daily Telegraph. BBC News.
Retrieved 6 May An Anthology of German Literature. Zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache.
Oxford University. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: J. A history of the German language: with special reference to the cultural and social forces that shaped the standard literary language Rev.
Seattle: University of Washington Press. Retrieved 13 July Oxford: Oxford University Press. The German language. London: Faber.
Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. A history of the German language. University of California Libraries. The German Nation and Martin Luther.
Orthographischen Konferenz in der Geschichte der deutschen Rechtschreibung. Jahrgang , Nr. Reine und gemässigte Hochlautung mit Aussprachewörterbuch.
Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. J21 : 22—24, Archived from the original on 23 September New York. Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 18 July Berlin: Inform-Verlag.
Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 20 June Archived from the original on 8 August Supplement of the Allgemeine Zeitung.
Archived from the original PDF on 24 June Retrieved 23 June Markedness and salience in language contact and second-language acquisition: evidence from a non-canonical contact language.
Language Sciences. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved 15 March Archived from the original on 26 June February Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 30 March Ideas viajeras y sus objetos.
Contacto de lenguas en el sur de Chile". LV 1 : — ABC News. Retrieved 23 February Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 18 October Pidgins and Creoles: Volume 2, Reference Survey 1st ed.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 12 June Levada Centre. Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 3 May Inter- und übernationale Beziehungen".
Deutsche Sprachgeschichte vom Spätmittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. Band III: Berlin; New York: de Gruyter. Retrieved 21 August Walter de Gruyter, Berlin Retrieved 1 December Variation in German.
Aufl ed. USA: Lulupress. Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 5 December In reality, the so-called Gothic script consists of Schwabach Jew letters.
Just as they later took control of the newspapers, upon the introduction of printing the Jews residing in Germany took control of the printing presses and thus in Germany the Schwabach Jew letters were forcefully introduced.
All printed materials are to be gradually converted to this normal script. As soon as is feasible in terms of textbooks, only the normal script will be taught in village and state schools.
The use of the Schwabach Jew letters by officials will in future cease; appointment certifications for functionaries, street signs, and so forth will in future be produced only in normal script.
On behalf of the Führer, Herr Reichsleiter Amann will in future convert those newspapers and periodicals that already have foreign distribution, or whose foreign distribution is desired, to normal script.
Fraktur: Form und Geschichte der gebrochenen Schriften. Mainz: H. Retrieved 20 September Partizip von stellen. Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 14 June Rothaug, Rudolf Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde an den österreichischen Mittelschulen [ Geographical atlas on the homeland lore at the Austrian secondary schools ] in German.
Wien: G. Cercignani, Fausto The Consonants of German: Synchrony and Diachrony. Milano: Cisalpino.
Clyne, Michael The German Language in a Changing Europe. Curme, George O. A Grammar of the German Language — the most complete and authoritative work in English.
Durrell, M In Brown, Keith ed. Lay summary 6 February Fox, Anthony The Structure of German. Harbert, Wayne The Germanic Languages. What are yours?
In addition to the idioms beginning with there. It's done. Are you learning new vocabulary? Or do you just have an interest in words? Either way, this quiz is for you.
Idioms for there been there, done that , Informal. Been there, done that.
There Deutsch - Beispielsätze für "there"Only now is there a chance for them to develop and prosper. It is a sketch: of architecture, the body, light and shadow — a production of images that are not there but here. Beispiele für die Übersetzung ist da ansehen Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Fotos zu einer Geschichte zu machen, fand die anderen Programme aber recht übersichtlich in ihren Möglichkeiten. Wir sind nur so aus den Betten in unsere Sachen gesprungen und zum Sunrise Point gedüst. Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Übersetzung im Kontext von „There, there“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: there, there is, out there, over there, there are two. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "is there" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. If there are serious shortcomings or any imminent risks of such shortcomings in a new Member State in the transposition, state of implementation or the application. Aber nicht doch, weine nicht, es wird nicht lange wehtun. ÜbersetzungenBearbeiten · Deutsch:  schon. Übersetzung für 'are you there?' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
There Deutsch VideoThe Man Who Wasn't There ≣ 2001 ≣ Trailer ≣ German - Deutsch
Low German or Plautdietsch  can be described as either "languages" or "dialects". The first of these branches survives in modern Danish , Swedish , Norwegian , Faroese , and Icelandic , all of which are descended from Old Norse.
The East Germanic languages are now extinct, and Gothic is the only language in this branch which survives in written texts.
The West Germanic languages, however, have undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as English , German, Dutch , Yiddish , Afrikaans , and others.
Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines running through Düsseldorf - Benrath and Krefeld - Uerdingen , respectively serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift south of Benrath from those that were not north of Uerdingen.
The various regional dialects spoken south of these lines are grouped as High German dialects nos. This classification indicates their historical descent from dialects spoken by the Irminones also known as the Elbe group , Ingvaeones or North Sea Germanic group , and Istvaeones or Weser-Rhine group.
German is therefore closely related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish based on Central Franconian dialects — no.
Also closely related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countries , such as Swiss German Alemannic dialects — no.
After these High German dialects, standard German is less closely related to languages based on Low Franconian dialects e.
As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic and the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic: the differences between these languages and standard German are therefore considerable.
These Anglo-Frisian dialects are all members of the Ingvaeonic family of West Germanic languages, which did not take part in the High German consonant shift.
This sound shift involved a drastic change in the pronunciation of both voiced and voiceless stop consonants b , d , g , and p , t , k , respectively.
The primary effects of the shift were the following:. While there is written evidence of the Old High German language in several Elder Futhark inscriptions from as early as the 6th century AD such as the Pforzen buckle , the Old High German period is generally seen as beginning with the Abrogans written c.
After the Abrogans , the first coherent works written in OHG appear in the 9th century, chief among them being the Muspilli , the Merseburg Charms , and the Hildebrandslied , as well as a number of other religious texts the Georgslied , the Ludwigslied , the Evangelienbuch , and translated hymns and prayers.
Of particular interest to scholars, however, has been the Hildebrandslied , a secular epic poem telling the tale of an estranged father and son unknowingly meeting each other in battle.
Linguistically this text is highly interesting due to the mixed use of Old Saxon and Old High German dialects in its composition.
The written works of this period stem mainly from the Alamanni , Bavarian , and Thuringian groups, all belonging to the Elbe Germanic group Irminones , which had settled in what is now southern-central Germany and Austria between the 2nd and 6th centuries during the great migration.
In general, the surviving texts of OHG show a wide range of dialectal diversity with very little written uniformity. The early written tradition of OHG survived mostly through monasteries and scriptoria as local translations of Latin originals; as a result, the surviving texts are written in highly disparate regional dialects and exhibit significant Latin influence, particularly in vocabulary.
The German language through the OHG period was still predominantly a spoken language, with a wide range of dialects and a much more extensive oral tradition than a written one.
Having just emerged from the High German consonant shift, OHG was also a relatively new and volatile language still undergoing a number of phonetic , phonological , morphological , and syntactic changes.
The scarcity of written work, instability of the language, and widespread illiteracy of the time explain the lack of standardization up to the end of the OHG period in While there is no complete agreement over the dates of the Middle High German MHG period, it is generally seen as lasting from to Whereas during the Old High German period the Germanic tribes extended only as far east as the Elbe and Saale rivers, the MHG period saw a number of these tribes expanding beyond this eastern boundary into Slavic territory known as the Ostsiedlung.
With the increasing wealth and geographic spread of the Germanic groups came greater use of German in the courts of nobles as the standard language of official proceedings and literature.
While these efforts were still regionally bound, German began to be used in place of Latin for certain official purposes, leading to a greater need for regularity in written conventions.
While the major changes of the MHG period were socio-cultural, German was still undergoing significant linguistic changes in syntax, phonetics, and morphology as well e.
A great wealth of texts survives from the MHG period. Significantly, these texts include a number of impressive secular works, such as the Nibelungenlied , an epic poem telling the story of the dragon -slayer Siegfried c.
Also noteworthy is the Sachsenspiegel , the first book of laws written in Middle Low German c. The abundance and especially the secular character of the literature of the MHG period demonstrate the beginnings of a standardized written form of German, as well as the desire of poets and authors to be understood by individuals on supra-dialectal terms.
While these states were still under the control of the Holy Roman Empire and far from any form of unification, the desire for a cohesive written language that would be understandable across the many German-speaking principalities and kingdoms was stronger than ever.
As a spoken language German remained highly fractured throughout this period, with a vast number of often mutually incomprehensible regional dialects being spoken throughout the German states; the invention of the printing press c.
One of the central events in the development of ENHG was the publication of Luther's translation of the Bible into German the New Testament was published in ; the Old Testament was published in parts and completed in Copies of Luther's Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region, translating words which were unknown in the region into the regional dialect.
Luther said the following concerning his translation method:. One who would talk German does not ask the Latin how he shall do it; he must ask the mother in the home, the children on the streets, the common man in the market-place and note carefully how they talk, then translate accordingly.
They will then understand what is said to them because it is German. When Christ says 'ex abundantia cordis os loquitur,' I would translate, if I followed the papists, aus dem Überflusz des Herzens redet der Mund.
But tell me is this talking German? What German understands such stuff? No, the mother in the home and the plain man would say, Wesz das Herz voll ist, des gehet der Mund über.
With Luther's rendering of the Bible in the vernacular, German asserted itself against the dominance of Latin as a legitimate language for courtly, literary, and now ecclesiastical subject-matter.
Furthermore, his Bible was ubiquitous in the German states: nearly every household possessed a copy.
German was the language of commerce and government in the Habsburg Empire , which encompassed a large area of Central and Eastern Europe.
Until the midth century, it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire. Its use indicated that the speaker was a merchant or someone from an urban area, regardless of nationality.
Others, such as Pozsony German: Pressburg , now Bratislava , were originally settled during the Habsburg period and were primarily German at that time.
The most comprehensive guide to the vocabulary of the German language is found within the Deutsches Wörterbuch.
This dictionary was created by the Brothers Grimm and is composed of 16 parts which were issued between and In , the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a complete standardization of the German language in its written form and the Duden Handbook was declared its standard definition.
In Northern Germany, Standard German was a foreign language to most inhabitants, whose native dialects were subsets of Low German.
It was usually encountered only in writing or formal speech; in fact, most of Standard German was a written language, not identical to any spoken dialect, throughout the German-speaking area until well into the 19th century.
Official revisions of some of the rules from were not issued until the controversial German orthography reform of was made the official standard by governments of all German-speaking countries.
Approximate distribution of native German speakers assuming a rounded total of 95 million worldwide.
Due to the German diaspora as well as German being the second most widely spoken language in Europe and the third most widely taught foreign language in the US  and the EU in upper secondary education  amongst others, the geographical distribution of German speakers or "Germanophones" spans all inhabited continents.
As for the number of speakers of any language worldwide, an assessment is always compromised by the lack of sufficient, reliable data. In Europe, German is the second most widely spoken mother tongue after Russian and the second biggest language in terms of overall speakers after English.
The area in central Europe where the majority of the population speaks German as a first language and has German as a co- official language is called the "German Sprachraum ".
It comprises an estimated 88 million native speakers and 10 million who speak German as a second language e.
Although expulsions and forced assimilation after the two World Wars greatly diminished them, minority communities of mostly bilingual German native speakers exist in areas both adjacent to and detached from the Sprachraum.
In France , the High German varieties of Alsatian and Moselle Franconian are identified as " regional languages ", but the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages of has not yet been ratified by the government.
Namibia was a colony of the German Empire from to Mostly descending from German settlers who immigrated during this time, 25—30, people still speak German as a native tongue today.
Although it is nearly extinct today, some older Namibians still have some knowledge of it. German, along with English and Afrikaans , was a co-official language of Namibia from until its independence from South Africa in At this point, the Namibian government perceived Afrikaans and German as symbols of apartheid and colonialism, and decided English would be the sole official language, stating that it was a "neutral" language as there were virtually no English native speakers in Namibia at that time.
Today, German is used in a wide variety of spheres, especially business and tourism, as well as the churches most notably the German-speaking Evangelical Lutheran Church in Namibia GELK , schools e.
Hoffmann , radio the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation produces radio programs in German , and music e. The Allgemeine Zeitung is one of the three biggest newspapers in Namibia and the only German-language daily in Africa.
Mostly originating from different waves of immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries, an estimated 12, people speak German or a German variety as a first language in South Africa.
The South African constitution identifies German as a "commonly used" language and the Pan South African Language Board is obligated to promote and ensure respect for it.
In the United States, the states of North Dakota and South Dakota are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English.
The impact of nineteenth century German immigration to southern Chile was such that Valdivia was for a while a Spanish-German bilingual city with "German signboards and placards alongside the Spanish".
In Australia , the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the s from Prussia particularly the Silesia region.
With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian English , a unique dialect known as Barossa German developed, spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide.
Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I , due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action.
It continued to be used as a first language into the 20th century, but its use is now limited to a few older speakers.
German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia.
Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century.
German speakers settled principally in Puhoi , Nelson , and Gore. At the last census , 36, people in New Zealand spoke German, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language.
There is also an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutsch , spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea , across Micronesia and in northern Australia i.
The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars. Like French and Spanish , German has become a classic second foreign language in the western world, as English Spanish in the US is well established as the first foreign language.
According to a survey, 47 million people within the EU i. The basis of Standard German is the Luther Bible , which was translated by Martin Luther and which had originated from the Saxon court language it being a convenient norm.
It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.
Standard German differs regionally among German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography.
This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct.
German is thus considered a pluricentric language. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties depending on the circumstances.
In German linguistics , German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German.
They differ only slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.
In the German-speaking parts of Switzerland , mixtures of dialect and standard are very seldom used, and the use of Standard German is largely restricted to the written language.
Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, while Austrian Standard German is officially used in the Austrian education system.
A mixture of dialect and standard does not normally occur in Northern Germany either. Because their linguistic distance is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects such as Bavarian, Swabian, and Hessian can.
The German dialects are the traditional local varieties of the language; many of them are not mutually intelligibile with standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon , phonology , and syntax.
If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages for instance in the Ethnologue.
However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.
Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League.
It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In , the Luther Bible was published.
The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German. It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties.
The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature. Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.
The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.
Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift.
However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II. The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund.
The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German. Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.
These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.
The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.
Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as. Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects.
They consist of the East and South Franconian dialects. The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany.
These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland. The largest cities in the East Franconian area are Nuremberg and Würzburg.
South Franconian is mainly spoken in northern Baden-Württemberg in Germany, but also in the northeasternmost part of the region of Alsace in France.
While these dialects are considered as dialects of German in Baden-Württemberg, they are considered as dialects of Alsatian in Alsace most Alsatian dialects are Low Alemannic , however.
The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn. The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west and the Bavarian dialects in the east.
The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. The largest cities in the Alemannic area are Stuttgart and Zürich.
The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich. German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.
German nouns inflect by case, gender, and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek , and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic , or Russian.
The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive and in the dative only in fixed or archaic expressions , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.
Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative, and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.
The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: -s, -es, -n, -ns, -en, -ens, -e.
In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.
Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second: Hundehütte "dog hut"; specifically: "dog kennel".
Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Baumhaus "tree house".
Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds. The longest German word verified to be actually in albeit very limited use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz , which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duties assignment law" [from Rind cattle , Fleisch meat , Etikettierung s labelling , Überwachung s supervision , Aufgaben duties , Übertragung s assignment , Gesetz law ].
However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward, or even satirical.
The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes. Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.
Other examples include the following: haften to stick , ver haften to detain ; kaufen to buy , ver kaufen to sell ; hören to hear , auf hören to cease ; fahren to drive , er fahren to experience.
Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".
For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? Literal: "Go you with?
German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.
For polar questions , exclamations, and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.
German requires a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.
The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are several possibilities:.
The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.
In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.
The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely.
When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end.
This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense. Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself.
The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end.
For example, the English sentence "Should he go home? Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end.
Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: "What did you bring that book that I do not like to be read to out of up for?
German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end. Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.
In these constructions, the past participle formed with ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. The order at the end of such strings is subject to variation, but the second one in the last example is unusual.
Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.
Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.
Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.
During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.
The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words.
The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century.
Thus, Notker Labeo was able to translate Aristotelian treatises into pure Old High German in the decades after the year Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words that are deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.
As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek.
These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly.
The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate. The Deutsches Wörterbuch German Dictionary initiated by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm already contained over , headwords in its first edition.
The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.
The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.
As of August [update] , it was in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.
The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.
The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German. It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.
Since the 39th edition in the orthography of the ÖWB has been adjusted to the German spelling reform of The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol.
This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en , German verbs are indicated by a hyphen after their stems.
Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet. Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.
In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner".
Umlaut vowels ä, ö, ü are commonly transcribed with ae, oe, and ue if the umlauts are not available on the keyboard or other medium used.
Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.
German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available, because they are a makeshift and not proper spelling.
In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e.
There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence. Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e.
Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.
As an example in a telephone book Ärzte occurs after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer because Ä is replaced by Ae. In a dictionary Ärzte comes after Arzt , but in some dictionaries Ärzte and all other words starting with Ä may occur after all words starting with A.
Written German also typically uses an alternative opening inverted comma quotation mark as in "Guten Morgen!
Until the early 20th century, German was mostly printed in blackletter typefaces mostly in Fraktur , but also in Schwabacher and written in corresponding handwriting for example Kurrent and Sütterlin.
These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.
The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.
The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.
Many Antiqua typefaces also include the long s. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.
The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.
In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated; however, in , many of the old comma rules were again put in force. Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:.
In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:. In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close.
Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.
Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.
In some cases, there are regional differences. In central Germany Hesse , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short.
The same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region. German vowels can form the following digraphs in writing and diphthongs in pronunciation ; note that the pronunciation of some of them ei, äu, eu is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters:.
With approximately 26 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.
The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th.
The th sound, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and 10th centuries.
The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.
Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.
English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from frequently eliminating umlauts and not capitalizing nouns :.
The government-backed Goethe-Institut  named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.
This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language.
The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world.
It is published twice a year 2, copies per issue —since in cooperation with the Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center at Kutztown University.
Since , the newspaper is published both online and in print. In , Jehovah's Witnesses began to publish literature in Pennsylvania German.
Pennsylvania German instead reflects the independent development of Palatine German, especially from the region that is called Vorderpfalz in German.
Several vowel and consonant in Pennsylvania German represent older forms of the German language, e.
They only appear as shifts if Standard German is erroneously seen as the basis from which Pennsylvania German evolved. The correspondence between Standard German and Pennsylvania German occur with a fair degree of regularity.
The American English influence is most significant on vocabulary  and to a much lesser degree on pronunciation; the English influence on grammar is relatively small.
The question of whether the large loss of the dative case — the most significant difference compared with Palatine German — is due to English influence or reflects an inner development, is disputed.
As in Standard German, Pennsylvania German uses three genders masculine, feminine, and neuter. Pronouns are inflected in three or four cases, while in Standard German there are always four cases.
Concerning the article, the nominative and accusative merged, and the dative is mostly lost. As in most other German dialects, [ clarification needed ] the genitive is lost and often replaced by a special construction using the dative and the possessive pronoun: "the man's dog" becomes em Mann sei Hund literally: "to the man his dog".
In most regions, the dative has been gradually replaced by the accusative, so that em Mann sei Hund , for example, has frequently become der Mann sei Hund.
Adjectival endings exist, but appear simplified compared to Standard German. As in all other South German dialects, the past tense is generally expressed using the perfect : Ich bin ins Feld glaafe "I have run into the field" and not the simple past Ich lief ins Feld ["I ran into the field"] , which is only retained in the verb "to be", as war or ware , corresponding to English "was" and "were".
The Subjunctive mood is only extant as Konjunktiv I Konjunktiv II is totally lost [ clarification needed ] in a limited number of verbs.
Several Pennsylvania German grammars have been published over the years. The list below appears to use IPA symbols to represent sounds used in Standard German to the left , with an arrow pointing to a sound found to be [ clarification needed ] at times its Pennsylvania German equivalent.
Following each of these entries is an example of a related word from Standard German, once again with an arrow pointing to its modern Pennsylvania German counterpart.
In Lancaster County, Pennsylvania , there have been numerous other shifts that can make their Pennsylvania German particularly difficult for modern High German speakers to understand.
This shift is rather common with German children learning to speak. These changes in pronunciation, combined with the general disappearance of declensions as described above, result in a form of the dialect that has evolved somewhat from its early Pennsylvania origins nearly years ago, while still being rather easy to understand by German dialect speakers of the Rhineland-Palatinate area.
The people from southern Germany, eastern France and Switzerland, from whom the Pennsylvania German culture and dialect sprang, started to arrive in America in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
For Pennsylvania German speakers who work in a modern trade or in an industrial environment, this could potentially increase the challenge of maintaining their mother tongue.
Numerous English words have been borrowed and adapted for use in Pennsylvania German since the first generations of Pennsylvania German habitation of southeastern Pennsylvania.
Conversely, although many among the earlier generations of Pennsylvania Germans could speak English, they were known for speaking it with a strong and distinctive accent.
Such Pennsylvania Dutch English can still sometimes be heard to this day. Although this more recently coined term is being used in the context of this and related articles to describe this Pennsylvania German-influenced English, it has traditionally been referred to as "Dutchy" or "Dutchified" English.
Pennsylvania German, which is now in its fourth century on North American soil, had more than , speakers in It has shifted its center to the West with approximately , speakers in Ohio , Indiana , Wisconsin , Iowa and other Midwest states.
The dialect is used vigorously by the horse and buggy Old Order Mennonites in the northern part of the Regional Municipality of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada.
While speakers without an Anabaptist background in general do not pass the dialect to their children today, the Old Order Amish and horse-and-buggy Old Order Mennonites do so in the current generation and there are no signs that this practice will end in the future.
According to sociologist John A. Hostetler , less than 10 percent of the original Pennsylvania German population was Amish or Mennonite.
There have been efforts to advance the use of the dialect. Kutztown University offers a complete minor program in Pennsylvania German Studies.
The program includes two full semesters of the Pennsylvania German dialect. In the — school year, the classes were being taught by Professor Edward Quinter.
In —, Professor Robert Lusch served as the instructor. According to one scholar, "today, almost all Amish are functionally bilingual in Pennsylvania Dutch and English; however, domains of usage are sharply separated.
Pennsylvania Dutch dominates in most in-group settings, such as the dinner table and preaching in church services.
In contrast, English is used for most reading and writing. English is also the medium of instruction in schools and is used in business transactions and often, out of politeness, in situations involving interactions with non-Amish.
The distinctive use of three different languages serves as a powerful conveyor of Amish identity. Because it is an isolated dialect and almost all native speakers are bilingual in English, the biggest threat to the dialect is gradual decay of the traditional vocabulary, which is then replaced by English loan words or words corrupted from English.
Other religious groups among whose members the Pennsylvania German dialect would have once been predominant, include: Lutheran and German Reformed congregations of Pennsylvania German background, Schwenkfelders , and Schwarzenau German Baptist Brethren.
In , there were about 10, speakers of Pennsylvania German in Canada, far fewer than in the United States. There are also attempts being made in a few communities to teach the dialect in a classroom setting; however, as every year passes by, fewer and fewer in these particular communities speak the dialect.
There is still a weekly radio program in the dialect whose audience is made up mostly of these diverse groups, and many Lutheran and Reformed congregations in Pennsylvania that formerly used German have a yearly service in Pennsylvania German.
Other non-native speakers of the dialect include those persons that regularly do business with native speakers. Among them, the Old Order Amish population was probably around , in There are also thousands of other Mennonites who speak the dialect, as well as thousands more older Pennsylvania German speakers of non-Amish and non-Mennonite background.
The Grundsau Lodge, which is an organization in southeastern Pennsylvania of Pennsylvania German speakers, is said to have 6, members.
Therefore, a fair estimate of the speaker population in might be close to ,, although many, including some academic publications, may report much lower numbers, uninformed of those diverse speaker groups.
There are no formal statistics on the size of the Amish population, and most who speak Pennsylvania German on the Canadian and U. Pennsylvania German was reported under ethnicity in the census.
Pennsylvania German speakers live mostly in the United States and Canada, but there are also some speakers who belong to traditional Anabaptist groups in Latin America.
Even though most Mennonite communities in Belize speak Plautdietsch, some few hundreds who came to Belize mostly around and who belong to the Noah Hoover Mennonites speak Pennsylvania German.
In Mario Pei 's book Language , a popular poem in the dialect with significant English influence in the form of loanwords is printed; the free-translation is, in the main, by J.
Today it's exactly twenty years Since I went up and away; Now I am back again, alive, And stand at the schoolhouse by the creek Just next to Grandpa's house.
Following the links, there are two examples of spoken Pennsylvania German: Die mudder schprooch The mother tongue  and Bisht du en Christ gebore?
Are you born as a Christian? Nevertheless, in the series Dwight speaks High German rather than the Pennsylvania dialect.
Orange is the New Black character Leanne Taylor and family are featured speaking Pennsylvania Dutch in flashbacks showing her Amish background before ending up in prison.
Science-fiction writer Michael Flynn wrote the novella The Forest of Time , depicting an alternate history in which the United States was never established, but each of the Thirteen Colonies went its own way as an independent nation.
In that history, Pennsylvania adopted the Pennsylvania German language as its national language and developed into a German-speaking nation, with its own specific culture, very distinct from both its English speaking neighbors and European Germany.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Variety of West Central German. Language family. Blue: The counties with the highest proportion of Pennsylvania German speakers.
Red: The counties with the highest number of Pennsylvania German speakers. Purple: The counties with both the highest proportion and highest number of Pennsylvania German speakers.
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